Abstract

The abstract is a summary of one or more texts. This is a secondary document, which contains a short and consistent summary of the contents of the source (or part of it) with the main facts and conclusions. Abstracting can be devoted to a particular problem or contain generalizations of different one's perspectives on a particular topic. From the usual comprehension of scientific literature, abstract differs in that it is taught (compared, evaluated) different points of view on the analyzed problem and the compiler of the abstract determines his attitude to the scientific positions, views, or definitions that belong to different authors. The research character of the abstract is its basic scientific value.


Also, an abstract is called of a scientific article or monograph. This essay contains the primary content of the primary source and must be specified the compiler's point of view, the position from which he views the problem.


The abstract can be the basis for a speech at a scientific conference, seminar when collecting material for literature review.


His training is a means of forming skills in working with literature, entry into scientific activity. The main feature of the abstract is its informative nature, which is formed in the process of a summary presentation of the source content. In addition, the abstract provides a summary of the material.


Preparation of the abstract requires careful study of the primary sources, summarizing them, content analysis, generalization, classification, identification of general and specific, highlighting in the text the basic positions and concepts of scientific research. Of course in the abstract direct and indirect quotation is widely used. The references to the authors of the opinions in the quotations used are obligatory.


However, the abstract cannot be reduced only to quotations. It represents the author's own thoughts on the topic of a particular problem. It can be really a great post to read.


The structure of the abstract highlights the plan, introduction, the main part, conclusions, the list of used literature and applications.


The abstract plan is usually determined by the content of the topic, the educational task, the volume of literary sources and the author's personal experience. The content of the topic of the abstract provides for its breakdown into components, which define the sections and paragraphs of the plan. The educational task affects meaningful planning through the selection of individual topics that have an educational purpose. In some cases, especially when the list of sources for the abstract is large enough, there is a need for a historiographical approach to them, forces group work under separate generic headers.


The introduction gives a general description of the topic of abstracting, the circle of authors and a brief description of primary sources, as well the purpose and tasks of preparation of the abstract are formulated, which provides the necessary context of the presentation. The main part is the presentation of material in accordance with the points of the plan. In the process of abstracting, there are basically two possible ways.


The first path involves the accurate display of the primary sources. The author of the abstract usually tries to avoid his own judgments. His job is to adequately express the views of the author’s primary source. But there is another way to make sense of abstract sources in the context of a topic or concept. Research, creative can be considered by him. In this case, the author of the abstract inevitably has to think about the place and contribution.


And here are the frequent situations where authors do not reflect all problems or have specific problems with approaches that compel them not only to study it but also to build the contours of a concept that emerges as the authors of the original sources comprehend the views.


The process of preparation of the abstract includes five stages: choice of the topic, its study, and motivation; search and get acquainted with the literature; summarizing and comprehending the literature; generalization and synthesis of summaries of separate literary sources; writing abstract text, preparing conclusions and list of literature.


As for the volume of abstract, it depends on the volume of material abstract and type of abstract.


The abstract performs various functions. It allows you to quickly get into the topic of scientific research, gets necessary in the educational process; certification is often not only for the abstract itself but also for the academic discipline because quite often the preparation of the abstract is a component of student or postgraduate certification.

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